Creation and Control of Universe
• 41:9 Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds."
• 41:10 And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures'] sustenance in four days without distinction – for [the information] of those who ask.
• 41:11 Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly."
• 41:12 And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing
Allah (swt) gave detailed account of the creation of the universe in Quran:
Allah (swt) said that originally heavens and earth were single entity, until He separated them. أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ - 21:30 “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?”.
He created earth in 2 days, and then he created mountains in 2 days. He mentioned that heaven was just smoke, until He brings heavens and earth together (41:11). He then created 7 heavens in 2 days. Then He put plenty of stars to brighten it and to protect it. All together he created the universe in 6 days. إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ – 7.54 “Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days …”.
He put mountains on earth to balance it and make pathways. وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ - 21:31 “And We placed within the earth firmly set mountains, lest it should shift with them, and We made therein [mountain] passes [as] roads that they might be guided".
And He made sky protection and they circle in their orbits. وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاء سَقْفًا مَّحْفُوظًا وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ - 21:32 “And We made the sky a protected ceiling, but they, from its signs, are turning away”. وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ - 21:33 “And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming.”
He then controls the days and night. الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ – 7:54 “… He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment…”. وَآيَةٌ لَّهُمْ اللَّيْلُ نَسْلَخُ مِنْهُ النَّهَارَ فَإِذَا هُم مُّظْلِمُونَ - 36:37 “And a sign for them is the night. We remove from it [the light of] day, so they are [left] in darkness”.
The Sun and Moon are orbiting in their circles. وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ - 36:38 “And the sun runs [on course] toward its stopping point. That is the (Qadar) determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing”.
And the moon changes it phases by Allah’s order. وَالْقَمَرَ قَدَّرْنَاهُ مَنَازِلَ حَتَّى عَادَ كَالْعُرْجُونِ الْقَدِيمِ - 36:39 “And the moon – We have determined for it phases, until it returns [appearing] like the old date stalk”.
Neither the Sun, nor the moon can disobey their Master and they continue orbiting without striking each other until Allah (swt) wishes. لَا الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِي لَهَا أَن تُدْرِكَ الْقَمَرَ وَلَا اللَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ - 36:40 “It is not allowable for the sun to reach the moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming”.
Creation of man
Similar to universe, Allah (swt) also gave detailed account of creation of man in the Quran.
Firstly, Allah (swt) said that He gives live and death to all beings. هُوَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ فَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ - 40:68 “He it is Who gives life and ordains death. Whatever He decrees, He only commands it to be and it is”.
Since, giving a ‘life’ is an attribute that is exclusive to Allah (swt), He challenges the whole creation (and to those false gods) to create a small fly. But that they can not even create a simple fly لَن يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا (… will never create a fly) !!!
Allah (swt) said: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ لَن يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ وَإِن يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئًا لَّا يَسْتَنقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ - 22:73 O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah, will never create [as much as] a fly, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the fly should steal away from them a [tiny] thing, they could not recover it from him. Weak are the pursuer and pursued.
Man was initially created with water and clay, water as mentioned above, and clay as Allah (swt) said: خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ - 55:14 “He created man from dry, rotten clay like the potter's”.
The order of the initial stages of the creation of man, as given at different places in the Quran, seems to be as follows1:
i. خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ, i.e. earth or dust;
- إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِندَ اللّهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثِمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ – 3:59 Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was.
- وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنتُم بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ - 30:20 And of His signs is that He created you from dust; then, suddenly you were human beings dispersing [throughout the earth].
ii. طِينٍ, i.e. clay made by mixing water with earth;
- الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ - 32:7 Who perfected everything which He created and began the creation of man from clay.
iii. طِينٍ لَّازِبٍ: sticky clay, i.e. a clay which becomes sticky when left alone for a long time;
- فَاسْتَفْتِهِمْ أَهُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَم مَّنْ خَلَقْنَا إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُم مِّن طِينٍ لَّازِبٍ – 37:11 Then inquire of them, [O Muhammad], "Are they a stronger [or more difficult] creation or those [others] We have created?" Indeed, We created men from sticky clay.
iv. صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ, i.e. clay with a stink in it;
- وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ - 15:26 And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud.
v. صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ i.e. the rotten clay which when dried becomes like baked pottery;
- خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ - 55:14 He created man from clay like [that of] pottery
vi. إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا, i.e.. the one who was made from this last form of the earth, in whom Allah breathed of His Spirit, to whom the angels were commanded to bow down, and from whose species his mate was created;
- إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِن طِينٍ - 38:71 [So mention] when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I am going to create a human being from clay.
- فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ - 38:72 So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My [created] soul, then fall down to him in prostration."
- وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ - 15:28 And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "I will create a human being out of clay from an altered black mud.
vii. ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ: “then spread his progeny by means of an extract of the nature of a despicable water”, for which the word نُّطْفَةٍ (Nutfah) has been used at other places.
- الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاء - 4:1 … who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women…
- ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ - 32:8 Then He made his posterity out of the extract of a liquid disdained.
Allah (swt) combined all these stages of human creation and exposed the entire sequel.
Who created Allah?
No one created Allah (swt). He is there from the beginning and there is no end of Him (swt). Allah swt said: هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ - 57:3 “He is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is, of all things, Knowing”. Everything will perish except Allah (swt), who is eternal. He said: كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ – 28:88 “Everything will be destroyed except His Face”
That is why Allah (swt) said that He is the only reality and everything else is false. ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ - 22:62 “That is because Allah is the Truth, and that which they call upon other than Him is falsehood, and because Allah is the Most High, the Grand”.
There is no one equivalent of Allah (swt), He is the King of all universes and no one is partner to Him in His Authority and Kingdom. He is one and the only God2 . And if there was another God either stronger or weaker than Allah (swt), then they would have fought. لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا - 21:22 “Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined..”.
But the fact of matter is there is none other God than Allah (swt). وَإِلَـهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَّ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ - 2:163 “And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful”.
Satan keeps creating doubts in people mind to confuse them, so instead of paying attention to the might of Allah swt and His massive creation, they start wasting time in wasteful things. Thus the Prophet (pbuh) advised us to brush away this misguidance of Satan and seek refuge with Allah (swt).
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him) observed: The Satan comes to everyone. of you and says: Who created this and that? till he questions: Who created your Lord? When he comes to that, one should seek refuge in Allah and keep away (from such idle thoughts). – Al-Muslim (Kitab al-Iman, B1, #244), also in al-Bukhari.
Our purpose on elaborating on the topic of creation is not to explore quantum physics or find scientific evidence of human creation. Indeed, Quran is not the book of science. However, the lessons we learned from these details are three fold:
i. That Allah (swt) establishes the evidence that He is the creator. He created the entire universe and the mankind from very beginning. Hence, it not difficult for him to resurrect it and recreate it again.
The very basis of creation of universe and mankind is based on our service towards Allah (swt) and our accountability, which results in subsequent judgement from Him (swt), and rewards and punishments.
Allah (swt) created us and gave us life. He sent us to this earth, to live our lives based on His instructions and guidance. This is the entire test. We have been given limited time in which we need to complete this test. Once this time limit ends, we will depart from earth and we will be taken to Judgement Day. There we will stand in front of our Creator who will judge us all based on our performance in this test.
However, people who failed to receive guidance, questions that how they can be recreated again? They say when a person dies, his life ends and there is no further life afterwards. Hence, Allah (swt) answers these people with various verses that how difficult it will be for Him to recreate them?
Allah (swt) said: وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلًا وَنَسِيَ خَلْقَهُ قَالَ مَنْ يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ - قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ - 36:78-79 And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, "Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?" 36:79 Say, "He will give them life who produced them the first time; and He is, of all creation, Knowing."
Allah (swt) is the most skilful Creator whose creation is so massive and large, that to date the best of our scientist were not even able to explore one percent of it. أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَى أَنْ يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم بَلَى وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَ - 36:81 Is not He who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the likes of them? Yes, [it is so]; and He is the Knowing Creator.
When Allah (swt) needed to create some thing, He only orders it and it comes into being. إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَنْ يَقُولَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ - 36:82 His command is only when He intends a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is.
Then Allah (swt) will bring mankind to life again. Allah (swt) said: كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ - 2:28 “How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned”.
Ultimately, Allah (swt) will gather all mankind on Day of Accountability. رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ النَّاسِ لِيَوْمٍ لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهِ - . 3:9 Our Lord, surely You will gather the people for a Day about which there is no doubt”. And He (swt) will judge all of us based on our deeds in this world.
ii. Secondly, The Might, Power and Knowledge of Allah (swt) that He created this entire system or universe and galaxies and all within it with such precision and balance3.
iii. Thirdly, it is ingratitude of man to become enemy of his own creator? The God that created him, gave him beautiful life, provided him with sustenance and countless bounties, and then instead of thanking the creator, man decides to become enemy of Allah (swt). أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الْإِنسَانُ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ مُّبِينٌ - 36:77 “Does man not consider that We created him from a [mere] sperm-drop – then at once he is a clear adversary?”. Not just that, but Allah (swt) reminded the man that He (swt) created him with a mere sperm drop, and wants to become enemy with Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى)?
Who can really fight with such powerful creator? If Allah (swt) wanted He can make them blind and deaf. وَلَوْ نَشَاء لَطَمَسْنَا عَلَى أَعْيُنِهِمْ فَاسْتَبَقُوا الصِّرَاطَ فَأَنَّى يُبْصِرُونَ - 36:66 “And if We willed, We could have obliterated their eyes, and they would race to [find] the path, and how could they see?”. If Allah (swt) wanted He could freeze them and they will not be able to move. وَلَوْ نَشَاء لَمَسَخْنَاهُمْ عَلَى مَكَانَتِهِمْ فَمَا اسْتَطَاعُوا مُضِيًّا وَلَا يَرْجِعُونَ - 36:67 “And if We willed, We could have deformed them, [paralyzing them] in their places so they would not be able to proceed, nor could they return.”
Footnotes1.Drived from Tafheem, Al-Mawdudi.
2.Quran Chapter Al-Baqarah 2:163, Al-Nisa 4:171, Al-Maida 5:73, Al-Ikhlas 112:1, Al-Inam 6:163, Bani Israel 17:111, Al-Furqan 25:2, Al-Ikhlas 112:4, Al-Zukhruf 43:84, Al-Imran 3:18.
3. See our chapter on Qadar.