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Home Deen Islam Aqueeda & Tawheed Qada wal Qadar Concept of al-Qadaa and al-Qadar القضاء و القدر

Concept of al-Qadaa and al-Qadar القضاء و القدر

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Al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ :

Allah SWT wrote in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) the fate of creatures:

"The first thing He created is the pen (al-qalam القلم), He said to it: 'Write'. It said: 'What shall I write?' He said: 'Write what will take place until the Day of Judgment.' Whatever is to strike a human being will never miss him, and whatever is to miss him will never strike him. The pens had been dried and the scrolls had been folded as Allah, The Glorified, The Exalted, said: "أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ  Did you not know that Allah knows (all) what in heaven and earth? Verily, all put down in a record. Indeed, that is very easy of Allah." Surah al-Hajj 22:70

Allah SWT knows the future, the present and the past and it was attested by Him SWT in various verses of Qur’an.

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

He (Allah) knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them (in the Hereafter), and they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.

Surah Ta-Ha: 20:110

It is indeed easy for Allah SWT to know the future. He already wrote it down in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz and preserved it.

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)

Surah al-Qamar 54:49

The declaration of Allah about al-Lawh al-Mahfooz and that He SWT wrote (in advance) every thing that exists and all events that will occur, and that He SWT wrote it before He SWT created us, is the sign of completeness of his Lordship (ruboobiyyah) and comprehensiveness of His SWT knowledge.

Muslim (2653) narrated that 'Abd-Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas said: I heard the Messenger of Allah PBUH say: "Allah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth." He said: "And His Throne was upon the water."

Thus, Allah is demonstrating us the power and comprehensiveness of His knowledge by illustrating in various verses of Qur’an that He SWT is all-knowing about futuristic events before even He SWT created them. And He SWT emphasized it and followed it up by saying that it is indeed “easy” for Him SWT. Thus he put a period to questions and ambiguities around al-Qadar by stating that it is very easy for Him SWT.


Al-Qadaa and al-Qadar القضاء و القدر :

Al-Qadar is “the divine will and decree of Allah SWT”, where He knew, wrote, willed and created all things in due proportion and according to a precise measure. Allah SWT knew about everything before bringing them to existence and in accordance with proportions and measures which Allah had written in a Book called al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet).

Al-Qadaa’ is the perfectly precise execution and accomplishment of all things in accordance with Allah’s Qadar.

Believe in al-Qadar القد ر :

Belief in al-Qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith, because:

The Prophet PBUH said, when he answered Jibreel's question about faith: "(It means) believing in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in al-Qadar (the divine decree) both good and bad."

What is meant by al-Qadar is that Allah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that they will happen at times that are known to Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and they happen according to what He has decreed.

And indeed we believe in al-Qadar both “Good” and “Bad” and we do not question the Logic of Allah SWT.

Belief in al-Qadar is based on four things:

1 – العلم Knowledge: i.e., that Allah SWT knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge, including their choices that will take place.

2 – كتابة Writing: i.e., that Allah SWT has written every thing that exists including the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz prior to creation.

3 – مشيئة Will: i.e., that what Allah SWT wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. There is no movement in the heavens or on earth but it happens by His will. This does not mean that he forces things to happen the way they happen in the area of human beings volunteer actions. It means that He new what they will chose, wrote it and let it happen, and was, is and can always change it when He wants.

4 - الخلق Creation and formation: i.e., that Allah SWT is the Creator of all things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, and Allah SWT is the Creator of them and of their actions.

Whoever believes in these four believes in al-Qadar. And this is The Believe of Ahlus-Sunnah wa-Jamaah اهل السنة والجماعة .

Qur’an affirms this in various verses:

 وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

And with Him are the keys of the Ghaieb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record

Surah al-An'aam 6:59

 

 مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah

Surah al-Hadeed 57:22

 

 وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the 'Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)

Surah al-Takweer 81:29

 

 إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)

Surah al-Qamar 54:49


Knowledge (العلم) of Allah is comprehensive

Allah knows everything about His creation before he created them. There are four types of Knowledge (Elm):

i) knowledge of past

ii) knowledge of present

iii) knowledge of future

iv) knowledge of what did not happened, and if would happened what would happened, as : Allah says: “and if they were sent back, they would have done whatever they were told to avoid” Al-Anaam 6:28

Allah SWT shared the knowledge of past and present with human beings, however, he didn’t not share knowledge of future and knowledge of what did not happened which is al-Ghaieb الغيب.

Point # 4 is also explained by following Hadith:

Abu Hurairah reported from Allah's Messenger (s) said: An infant is born according to his (true) nature. It is his parents who make him a Jew, a Christian, just as a she-camel gives birth to its young ones. Do you find any deficiency in their limbs? You cut their ears (i.e. after birth). They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) said: What is your opinion about him who dies in infancy? Thereupon Allah's Apostle (s) said: It is Allah alone Who knows best what they would be doing. (Sahih Muslim, Book 033, Hadith Number 6428.)

The assumption is that the knowledge of Allah SWT is complete in all four areas, if any one denies that or believe in otherwise, he or she would be unbeliever كافر .

Allah knows that the disbelievers (Kuffar) on the Day of Judgement will wish to return to the life of this world, so that they may do deeds of righteousness. However Allah knows that even ….

 بَلْ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ

“if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars” Surah a-Anaam 6:28

Allah says about the disbelievers who do not listening to His Guidance, that was brought to them by the Prophet (s):

وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لَّأسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

“Had Allah known of any good in them, He would have made them listen, and even if he makes them listen they would have turned away, averse (to the truth).” Surah al-Anfaal 8:23]

Thus we believe that knowledge of Allah SWT of what will happen precisely as it will happen, what happened in the past and what is happening now, and whatever did not happened, is the most comprehensive and complete.

 عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ

All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most Great, the Most High.

Surah ar-Ra’d 13:9

This was repeated 13 times in Qur’an that His knowledge of the unseen and what is happening.

 مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz), before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah.

Surah al-Hadeed 57:22

People of Paradise (الجنة) and Fire (النار) are known to Allah’s

Ali (r) narrated that one day the Prophet (s) was sitting with a wooden stick in his hand with which he was scratching the ground. He raised his head and said, “There is none of you, but has his place assigned either in the Fire or in Paradise.” They (the Companions) inquired, “O Allah’s Messenger! Why should we carry on doing good deeds, shall we depend (upon Qadar) and give up work?” The Prophet (s) said: “No, carry on doing good deeds, for everyone will find it easy (to do) such deeds that will lead him towards that for which he has been created”. Then He (s) recited the verse: “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, and believes in al-Husna, We will make smooth for him the path of Ease (goodness) (Surah al-Lail 92:5-7) . Sahih Muslim

Righteous and Evil people are known to Allah’s

Allah SWT knew that from the offspring of Adam there would be Prophets, Messengers and righteous people. None knew this, not even the angels. Allah says:

 وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know.”

Surah al-Baqara 2:30


Al-Kitabah الكتابة : Writing

Al-Kitabah means that Allah wrote everything about His creation; their livelihood, provision, life-spans, deeds, etc. All this is written in Umm al-Kitaab أم الكتاب (lit. Mother of all books, an expression define something as ‘the original’), also known as al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet)

 تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاء وَالْأَرْضِ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

Know you not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz). Verily! That is easy for Allah.

Surah al-Hajj 22:70

The Qur'an itself is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, as Allah says:

 وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌرٌ

And Verily, it (this Qur'an) is in the Mother of the Book (i.e. Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz), before Us, indeed Exalted, full of Wisdom.

Surah az-Zukhruh 43:3

This is also mentioned in Surah al-Buruj 85:22. Even the smallest of detail has been recorded in the Preserved Tablet, as Allah says:

 وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الأَرْضِ وَلاَ فِي السَّمَاء وَلاَ أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَلِكَ وَلا أَكْبَرَ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

And nothing is hidden from your Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom (or small ant) on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that but is (written) in a Clear Record.

Surah Yunus 10:61

This is also mentioned in other verses; like Surah al-An'aam 6:59. These records are perfect and have missed nothing. Allah SWT has said referring to the answer of Moosa to the Pharaoh:

 قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَى

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى

Fir'aun (Pharaoh) said: "What about the generations of old?.

Musa (Moses) said: "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord is neither unaware nor He forgets”.

Surah Ta-Ha 20:51-51

The Writing on Preserved Tablet لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ doesn’t change

Some argue that what is written on preserved tablet can be re-written. This is false assumption. What was written on preserved tablet is final and it doesn’t change. Thus it is important to mention following Hadith to clarify that what Allah SWT wrote on the Preserved Tablet is firm and it doesn’t change.

Jabir reported that Suraqah bin Maalik came and said: “O Messenger of Allah! Explain our Deen to us as if we have been created just now. Whatever we do today, is it because of the fact that the pens have turned dry (having written the records) and the destinies have begun to operate? Or is it something that just happens (without pre-destination)?” Thereupon, the Messenger said, “Nay! Surely it is because of what has been recorded by the pens after they have dried and the destinies have begun to operate” - Sahih Muslim

The pen has been dried here means that what was written in the book is final and requires no further modification. Thus whatever actions happen in our live happens in accordance with what was written, and it can not happen otherwise, because it will constitute the lack of knowledge of Allah.

However, writing the actions of man does not mean that it is dictated upon him to do. It only means that:

i) Allah SWT knows what he (creation) will do no matter how many times the person might change his mind, and that

ii) Allah SWT decided not to interfere in changing that action, as if he wanted to change it He SWT would have done that and it would be easy for Him to do.

Other Writings of Taqdeer تقد ير

There are evidences in Qur’an and Sunnah that there are other writing of Taqdeer تقد ير other than what Allah SWT wrote on ام الكتاب(The Preserved Tabled) or لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظ. These can be thought of subset of what was written on the Preserved Tabled. What was written on the preserved tablet is only known to Allah SWT, however the order from preserved tablet is descended to these other writing, and made known to angles.

1. التقدير العمرى Covering the person’s life span: are written while in the mother’s womb at an early stage of his development

Abdullah bin Masood who said, that the Messenger of Allah (s) said: “The creation of everyone of you is collected for the first forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of a Nutfah after which it turns into a Alaqa for an equal period. Then it becomes a Mudhqah for a similar period and then Allah sends an angel with four words recording: the person’s provision, his life term, his deeds, or whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter).” Bukhari and Muslim

2. ليلةالقدر in the Night of al-Qadar: These are annual provisions that take place during the night of decree (Lailatul-Qadar, in last 10 days of Ramadan).

 فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ

Therein (that night) is decreed every matter of ordainments.

Surah Ad-Dukhan 44:4

 

Ibn Abbas said: “On the night of Decree, everything that occurs over the whole (coming) year from the matters of death, births, provisions, and the rain would be recorded from the Record of the Mother of the Book; it would even be said that such and such a person would perform Hajj.” Mentioned in as-Syouti’s Ad-Durr al-Manthour [6/25] and al-Shawkani’s Fathul-Qadeer [4/572]

3. The Daily Taqdeer: these are the daily provisions from the Taqdeer according to its previously appointed terms and on its specific times. This can be a result of one’s prayers.

 يَسْأَلُهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ

Whosoever is in the heavens and on earth begs of Him (its needs from Him). Every day He has a matter to bring forth (such as giving honour to some, disgrace to some, life to some, death to some, etc.)!

Surah ar-Rahman 55:29

In this Ayah, Allah affirms that He is Rich, Free of all wants for anyone else and that all creatures stand in need of Him, in all conditions and situations. They all seek His help willingly or unwillingly. Everyday, He is engaged in some affair.

Al-A`mash reported from Mujahid, from `Ubayd bin `Umayr, [كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأْنٍ] (Every day He is (engaged) in some affair.) He said, "Of His affairs is that He answers the supplicant, or gives to the one requesting, or removing adversity, or cures the one seeking to be cured.'' – Tafsir ibn-Khatir

Relationship between different levels of Taqdeers:

Ibn Taymiyah and Ibn Qaiyyim al-Jawziyyah stressed that the Taqdeer in the Preserved Tablet is a general and comprehensive one that covers everything, while the other writings of Taqdeer are special and specific details for the Taqdeer of the Preserved Tablet

The writing of the Preserved Tablet is Preserved, i.e. is not subject to any change whatsoever because it is based on Allah’s Knowledge [Ibn Taymiyah in al-Fatawa, vol.8, p.840]

In other books (or writings), however changes may occur, as in the case of the books handled by the angels, as Allah says:

 يَمْحُو اللّهُ مَا يَشَاء وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ

Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)

Surah Ar-Ra'd 13:39

 

Ibn Taymiyah explained that: “Provisions and life terms are of two kinds:

o The unchanged record written in Ummul Kitaab

o That made known to the angels by Allah (these records being subject to increase or decrease). This is why Allah says, “يَمْحُو اللّهُ مَا يَشَاء وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the Preserved Tablet).” [Surah Ar-Ra'd 13:39]

 

In the angel’s books, both the life span and provisions increase and decrease due to specific reasons. Thus, Allah commands the angel to write the provision and life span of one of His slaves. If the slave joins the tie of kinship, Allah commands the angel to increase the slave’s sustenance and life term by specific increments. The angel does not know the actual outcome of extension in the life term, or that related to the increase in provisions. He (Allah) knows the out come (i.e. the pre-appointed term which is not to be prolonged nor delayed.” [al-Fatawa, vol.8, p.517 and p.540]

 

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: “For example, to say to the angel that the age of such and such person is hundred years if he joins the tie of his kinship, and sixty years if he severs it. In the Foreknowledge of Allah it is known whether he will join or sever the tie of kinship; and whatever is in Allah’s Knowledge is not subject to extension or delay. However, the angel’s knowledge is the one subject to the increase or decrease. This is what is referred to in Allah’s saying: “يَمْحُو اللّهُ مَا يَشَاء وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَاب Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills); and with Him is Ummul Kitaab (the Preserved Tablet).” [Surah Ar-Ra'd 13:39]

 

Therefore the blotting and confirming is relevant to the knowledge of the angels, but what is recorded in Ummul Kitaab is relevant to Allah’s Knowledge, where there is absolutely no blotting…” [Fath ul-Bari, vol.10, p.430]


Al-Mashee’ah المشيئة : The Will of Allah

Nothing can happen without the will of Allah SWT. He is the approver for everything. Allah gives power to whom He wills, lifts up in honor or degrades and He alone gives victory or defeat to whom He wills, as He said:

قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاء وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاء وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاء وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَاء بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Allah says: “Say (O Muhammed, O Allah! Possessor of the Kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and take the kingdom from whom you will; You honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In your Hand is the good. Verily! You are able to do all things.” Surah al-Imran 3:26

 

وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَآتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا وَلَكِنْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ مِنِّي لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

Allah says: If we had willed, We would have given each person his guidance.” Surah As-Sajdah 32:13

 

قُل لَّوْ شَاء اللّهُ مَا تَلَوْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلاَ أَدْرَاكُم بِهِ فَقَدْ لَبِثْتُ فِيكُمْ عُمُرًا مِّن قَبْلِهِ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

"What Allah does not will shall never take place: “Say (O Muhammed, If Allah has so willed, I should not have recited it to you nor would He have made it known to you.” Surah Yunus 10:16

The will of Allah SWT is of two types:

1. Universal Will المشيئة الكونية : This is a general will that applies to all creation, no one can escape it.

Man’s will is true and real, but it does not escape Allah’s will, as He says:

وَمَا يَذْكُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ هُوَ أَهْلُ التَّقْوَى وَأَهْلُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ

Allah says: “And they will not receive admonition unless Allah wills.”

Surah al-Muddaththir 74:56

 

وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Allah says: “And you cannot will unless Allah wills. Verily! Allah is ever all-Knowing, all-Wise.”

Surah al-Insan 76:30

 

وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Allah says: “Verily, your Rabb creates whatever He wills and chooses.”

Surah al-Qasas 28:68

 

وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاء إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى

Allah says: “And We cause whom We will, to remain in the wombs for an appointed term.” Surah al-Hajj 22:5

 

لِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء يَهَبُ لِمَنْ يَشَاء إِنَاثًا وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَاء الذُّكُورَ

أَوْ يُزَوِّجُهُمْ ذُكْرَانًا وَإِنَاثًا وَيَجْعَلُ مَن يَشَاء عَقِيمًا إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ قَدِيرٌ

Allah says: “To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth, He creates what He wills. He bestows female (offspring) upon whom He wills, and bestows male (offspring) upon whom He wills, or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. He is all-Knowing, all-Able.”

Surah ash-Shura 42:49-50

 

يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاء

Allah says: “Allah guides to His Light whom He wills.”

Surah an-Nur 24:35

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ

Allah says: “Verily! Allah does what He wills.”

 Surah al-Hajj 22:14

 

فَمَن يُرِدِ اللّهُ أَن يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلإِسْلاَمِ وَمَن يُرِدْ أَن يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاء

Allah says: “And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens His breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky.”

Surah al-An'aam 6:125

 

Ibn Abbas said: “It means that Allah opens up one’s heart for the acceptance of and belief in Tawheed.” (See Tafseer Ibn Katheer for the quoted verse )

This also means, if Allah SWT wanted He could have created us as one nation, following one order. But in His Universal Will He willed not to do so.

 وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَـكِن لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُم فَاسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى الله مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

If Allah willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so strive as in a race in good deeds. The return of you (all) is to Allah; then He will inform you about that in which you used to differ.

Surah al-Maaidah 5:48

It is not necessary that all actions of His creation are liked by Allah SWT, rather many of their acts are disliked by Him SWT, but He SWT willed for them to pass. E.g. Allah SWT created Shatan, yet He SWT hates him. Whatever Allah SWT permits to exist, and it does not necessarily mean that He SWT loves them.

This is called Universal will. Under this will, Allah may decree to pass things which He does not force His creation to follow (like Kuffr and disobedience).

2. Shariah Will المشيئة الشرعية : It’s the will in accordance to the legislation of Allah SWT. It is related to what Allah likes, whether it takes place or not. E.g. The acts of obedience from His creation.

 وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَمَن شَاء فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَلْيَكْفُرْ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ نَارًا

And say: "The truth is from your Lord." Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have prepared for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), a Fire.

Surah al-Kahf 18:29

Following of this will by human is left to their choice, but we must adhere to it if we want to live in this world with grace and the hereafter, and if we want to be protected from hell fire. However, the Kuffar rebel against Shariah will, and they are allowed to rebel until the judgement day, by the free choice given to them Allah SWT.

Relationship between Universal Will and Shariah Will

The relation between these is clear from the following verse:

وَلَا يَرْضَى لِعِبَادِهِ الْكُفْر

“And He likes not Kuffr for His slaves.”

Surah az-Zumar 39:7

Thus it is obvious that Allah SWT doesn’t like the Kuffr but He allowed it to exist.


Khalq (الخلق) - The Creation and formation

Allah is the soul creator of everything, including man’s deeds. There is no single atom, static or in motion but that Allah has created it, as He says:

اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ

Allah says: “Verily! Allah is the Creator of everything, and He is the Wakil (Guardian, Trustee, etc.) over all things.”

Surah az-Zumar 39:62

 

ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ لَّا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ

Allah says: “That is Allah, your Rabb, the Creator of everything.”

Surah Ghafir 40: 62

 

اللّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

Allah says: “Say (O Muhammed) that Allah is the Creator of everything, and He is the One, the irresistible.”

Surah Ar-Ra'd 13:16


Our free will

Allah SWT gave us free will to do whatever we wished to do in this world.

Man has real ability and free will for choice and action. Man’s ability to move (physically) and to believe (intellectually) is an action that is truly attributed to him (man). These actions are created by Allah SWT. Man’s movement, standing, sitting, etc. are real actions which Allah decreed, set under his ability, willed, and created them for him.

It is not hard to test, try moving your hand, or sit or stand. These are our actions that we control and we have free will over them. That is why Allah SWT gave us option to obey Him SWT or choose otherwise:

ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمُ الْحَقُّ فَمَن شَاء اتَّخَذَ إِلَى رَبِّهِ مَآبًا

Allah says: "So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with (or a way to) His Lord (by obeying Him in this worldly life)!"

al-Naba' 78:39

Not only that our actions are free, even our desires and intentions are free:

مِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الدُّنْيَا وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الآخِرَةَ

Allah says: "Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter"

Aal 'Imraan 3:152

 

وَمَنْ أَرَادَ الآخِرَةَ وَسَعَى لَهَا سَعْيَهَا وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَئِكَ كَانَ سَعْيُهُم مَّشْكُورًا

Allah says: "And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it (i.e. does righteous deeds of Allah's obedience) while he is a believer (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) - then such are the ones whose striving shall be appreciated, (thanked and rewarded by Allah)"

al-Isra' 17:19

The group Al-Jabriyyah (from Arabic Jabr, ‘Compulsion’) claimed that pre-destiny deprived man from his ability and choice. According to this claim, man has no will and no real action, and that he is just like a feather in the wind.

The Other group, Al-Qadariyyah totally denied Al-Qadar and claimed that man creates his own actions by his ability and by his will, and thus making creators other than Allah! That is why the Prophet (s) called them the “Majoos (Majians) of this Ummah”, because the Majoos claim that Satan “creates” evil and harmful things, making Satan a “creator” besides Allah.

It is a false claim that people are compelled to do what they do and have no choice.

إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا

Allah says: "Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful"

al-Insaan 76:3

 

وَهَدَيْنَاهُ النَّجْدَيْنِ

Allah says: "And shown him the two ways (good and evil)?"

al-Balad 90:10

 

وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَمَن شَاء فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاء فَلْيَكْفُرْ

Allah says: "And say: "The truth is from your Lord." Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve"

al-Kahf 18:29

We have the choice to follow whatever path we want but at the end of this path you will find what Allah has predicted for you and wrote it in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, and this is the correct view.

Ibn Taymiyah (r) said, explaining the view of Ahl al-Sunnah with regard to man's deeds: “People act in a real sense, and Allah is the Creator of their actions. A person may be a believer or a kaafir, righteous or immoral, he may pray and fast. People have control over their actions, and they have their own will, and Allah is the Creator of their control and will.

 

لِمَن شَاء مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

وَمَا تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Allah says: "To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight. And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allah wills the Lord of the 'Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)"

al-Takweer 81:28-29


Allah SWT tests the believers:

Allah SWT said that he will test each on of us, and none of us will escape this test.

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Allah says: “Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah tests those of you who fought (in His Cause) and (also) tests those who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.)?”

Surah Al-'Imran: 3:142

Things that happens to a person that he does without choosing or willing them, such as sickness, death and accidents, they are purely divine will (al-Qadar) and the person has no choice or will with regard to them, and they are to test him.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

Allah says: “And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.).”

Surah Al-Baqarah: 2:155

Thus Allah SWT may test us time to time, and those who are as-Sabirin and the believer will certainly pass the test.

The entire live is a test, and Allah SWT is the examiner. We have the choice to make the right decisions and pass this test, or make the wrong decision and fail the test.


Allah SWT control the Universe

The other incidents that we don't have control over is day and night, earth circulating the sun, birth and death, other calamities etc. These are things only Allah SWT controls. We have not choice and options in these matter whatsoever.

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلاَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Allah says “Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)!”

Surah Al-A'raf: 7:54

Hence, He SWT left no ambiguity and doubt that Allah SWT controls the universe, and that He SWT created and commanded the universe. Thus the sun and the moon and the stars are serving humans.

وَسَخَّر لَكُمُ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ دَآئِبَينَ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ

Allah says: “And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you.”

Surah Ibrahim: 14:33

 

تُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي الْنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

Allah says: “You make the night to enter into the day, and You make the day to enter into the night (i.e. increase and decrease in the hours of the night and the day during winter and summer), You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living…”

Surah Ale-Imran 3:27

These are the boundaries and controls by Allah SWT. We humans live in the universe created and controlled by Allah SWT, and we are free to exercise our will in making right or wrong choices.

It is also obvious that all these settings should be in place before humans can be created. And in order for Allah to create the universe He should be fully aware of what humans can do and what they will do in order to sustain the complexity of this universe.


Allah SWT creates and chooses whoever he wills

Allah SWT alone creates and chooses whoever He wills from among His creation:

 وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter). Glorified be Allah, and exalted above all that they associate as partners (with Him).

Surah al-Qasas 28:68

The choice is for the Creator alone, and just as He alone creates, He alone chooses from His creation. None has the ability to create and chooses after that, except Allah SWT. He knows what is suitable to be chosen and what is otherwise.

 وَإِذَا جَاءتْهُمْ آيَةٌ قَالُواْ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ حَتَّى نُؤْتَى مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ رُسُلُ اللّهِ اللّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ

And when there comes to them a sign (from Allah) they say: "We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received." Allah knows best with whom to place His Message.

Surah al-An’am 6:124

In this verse Allah SWT asserts that He knows best those who are suitable to receive His Bounty, Honour and being entrusted with the Message and Prophethood.

Allah SWT created the heaven and made it seven heavens. He chose the highest among the seven heavens as the residence of the angels nearest to Him, selected it to be the closest to His Kursi (literally, a footstool) and ‘Arsh (Allah’s Throne) and placed in it those whom He chose from among His creation. Therefore, the seventh heaven has a virtue and status above the rest of heavens; even if its only virtue is its being the closest and nearest to Allah SWT, it will be sufficient alone.

Choosing and selecting in this manner, especially since the heavens are made of the same substances, are among the clearest evidences to Allah’s perfect ability and wisdom and that He creates what He wills and then chooses.

Allah SWT also chose Jannat al-Firdaus (The Firdaus Paradise) above all other paradises. He selected al-Firdaus by making His Throne its roof. Some Athar suggests that “Allah SWT planted its trees with His own Hand and selected it to be the dwelling of the best of His creation”. (Al-Bukhari)

Allah SWT chooses the messengers from angels and man.

 اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ

Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.

Surah Al-Hajj: 22:75 8

One of the most beautiful of verses in Quran sums up the “will” of Allah SWT :

 قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاء وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاء وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاء وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَاء بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَىَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

تُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي الْنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

Say (O Muhammad ): "O Allah! Possessor of the kingdom, You give the kingdom to whom You will, and You take the kingdom from whom You will, and You endue with honour whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Able to do all things.

You make the night to enter into the day, and You make the day to enter into the night (i.e. increase and decrease in the hours of the night and the day during winter and summer), You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit (measure or account).

Surah Ale-Imran: 3:26-27

And so on and so forth.

Thus while we try to understand Qada and Qadar in relation to the free will, we must also understand that Allah is the creator, who can not be questioned, and He does what He wills, and He chooses whomever He wills, and He guides whomever He wills, and He knows all the secrets.

I would add here that Allah does not commit any injustice to any of his creation (wa ma yathlimo rabuka ahadan, wa ma rabuka bithalamin lil abeed). Allah SWT chooses to guide by his grace, and chooses to misguide by his just justice.


Al-Ghaib (The unseen)

No one can have knowledge of unseen except God, and hence He is the only Knower of secrets;

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

Allah says: " Say: "None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (unseen) except Allah, nor can they perceive when they shall be resurrected."

Surah An-Naml: 27:65

 

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لاَ يَعْلَمُهَا إِلاَّ هُوَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلاَّ يَعْلَمُهَا وَلاَ حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الأَرْضِ وَلاَ رَطْبٍ وَلاَ يَابِسٍ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

Allah says: “And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.”

Surah Al-An'am 6:59


Allah knows the future

Allah SWT in the Qur’an has mentioned that He SWT has the precise knowledge of future. Take for example the subject of the sun and the moon:

اللّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُم بِلِقَاء رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ

Allah says: “Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He Istawa (rose above) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.”

Surah Ar-Ra'd: 13:2

Thus Allah has appointed the term for the Sun and the Moon, and once this term ends, they will cease.

Take for example the subject of death/birth. Allah SWT knows in advance when we will be born and when will we die, to the very split second.

 ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن بَعْدِ الْغَمِّ أَمَنَةً نُّعَاسًا يَغْشَى طَآئِفَةً مِّنكُمْ وَطَآئِفَةٌ قَدْ أَهَمَّتْهُمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ يَظُنُّونَ بِاللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ ظَنَّ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَقُولُونَ هَل لَّنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ مِن شَيْءٍ قُلْ إِنَّ الأَمْرَ كُلَّهُ لِلَّهِ يُخْفُونَ فِي أَنفُسِهِم مَّا لاَ يُبْدُونَ لَكَ يَقُولُونَ لَوْ كَانَ لَنَا مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ مَّا قُتِلْنَا هَاهُنَا قُل لَّوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ لَبَرَزَ الَّذِينَ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَتْلُ إِلَى مَضَاجِعِهِمْ وَلِيَبْتَلِيَ اللّهُ مَا فِي صُدُورِكُمْ وَلِيُمَحَّصَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

Allah says: "Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves (as how to save their ownselves, ignoring the others and the Prophet ) and thought wrongly of Allah - the thought of ignorance. They said, "Have we any part in the affair?" Say you (O Muhammad ): "Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah." They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: "If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here." Say: "Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death," but that Allah might test what is in your breasts; and to Mahis (test and uncover) that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All­Knower of what is in (your) breasts."

Surah Al-'Imran: 3:154

This confirms that actions of each individual is already taken into consideration by Allah SWT, and when he decreed life and death and wrote its specific time and place in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, He SWT was already aware of the choices His SWT creation will make.

 وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَمَا تَحْمِلُ مِنْ أُنثَى وَلَا تَضَعُ إِلَّا بِعِلْمِهِ وَمَا يُعَمَّرُ مِن مُّعَمَّرٍ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنْ عُمُرِهِ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

Allah says: “And Allah did create you (Adam) from dust, then from Nutfah (male and female discharge semen drops i.e. Adam's offspring), then He made you pairs (male and female). And no female conceives or gives birth, but with His Knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man's life), but is in a Book (Al­Lauh Al­Mahfuz) Surely, that is easy for Allah.”

Surah Fatir: 35:11

Thus when the time of death comes, no one can escape it, and indeed it is easy for Allah SWT.

If we go by the twisted logic of al-Mutazilah, where they claim that Allah SWT didn’t have prior knowledge of the choices an individual can make, or some of them say that He SWT knows the alternatives but He does not know which one the person will choose until he chooses it (Shabeer Ali’s opinion!) then certainly, Allah wouldn’t be able to decree the exact time and place where Ezrael (angle of death) will meet this individual to recollect the soul.

Hence, if Mr. Thompson was decreed to die in a hotel at Paris on Nov 9th , and he decided to go on vacation a day prior, and since Allah didn’t have prior knowledge, ملك الموت (angel of death) will be sitting in his hotel room at Paris, confused. Imagine is this happens in the case of billions of people, ملك الموت would perhaps resign.

Praise be to Our Allah, that He SWT is free from all such uncertainties, for when it comes to Allah SWT, every thing is certain and guaranteed. Nothing can miss his wisdom and knowledge. And Allah SWT is a great planner and he has already planned SWT what the creation can plan, and no one can beat the plan of Allah SWT. True and tested, the verses of Qur’an never fail us!

وَمَكَرُواْ وَمَكَرَ اللّهُ وَاللّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ

And they (disbelievers) plotted [to kill 'Iesa (Jesus)], and Allah planned too. And Allah is the Best of the planners.

Surah Al-'Imran: 3:54

Allah has spoken the Truth!


Groups that fell into misguidance with regards to Qadar

1. Al-Jabriyyah - This group claimed that the person is forced to do whatever he does and that he has no power or will of his own.

2. Al-Qadariyyah - They claimed that the person has a will and power independent of Allah’s Will and Power.


Allah is not dependent on the actions of creation

Going by the logic of Mutazilah once can conclude that Allah SWT is dependent on the actions of His creation. i.e. He SWT can not take the next decision without the creation going through the previous event and making their choices, and when they had made their choices it becomes clear to Allah SWT what He can do next, after which Allah SWT decides what to do next, since Allah SWT didn’t knew in advance what choices His creation will make. This kind of twisted logic make Allah SWT depended on His creation. Hence this logic puts limitation on Allah SWT by:

  • by declaring that Allah SWT can only plan in limited terms and can not do forward planning before hand, since He must wait until the creation do actions
  • by declaring that Allah SWT is dependent on the action of his creation
  • by declaring that Allah SWT has limited knowledge and he doesn’t know complete future
  • Since Allah SWT doesn’t know future he can not predict future in their certainty
  • Since Allah SWT can not predict the future completely, He is unable to control the future events and events that are driven from other events and the events that drive from there on.

نعوذ بلله. May Allah forgive us. This is certainly not the description of our Allah. Our Allah is far from such description.

Praise be to Allah, He SWT is the One who is perfect and He SWT has no weakness, no ambiguity and He SWT is complete in every sense. His knowledge is complete and His power is complete, and He SWT is never dependent on anything and everything is dependent on Him SWT.

أَلَمْ تَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُ ظَاهِرَةً وَبَاطِنَةً وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُّنِيرٍ

Allah says: “See you not (O men) that Allah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and has completed and perfected His Graces upon you, (both) apparent (i.e Islamic Monotheism, and the lawful pleasures of this world, including health, good looks, etc.) and hidden [i.e. One's Faith in Allah (of Islamic Monotheism) knowledge, wisdom, guidance for doing righteous deeds, and also the pleasures and delights of the Hereafter in Paradise, etc.]? Yet of mankind is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or a Book giving light!”

Surah Luqman: 31:20

 

وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

Allah says: “for lo! Allah is altogether Independent of (His) creatures.”

Surah Al-Ankabut: 29:6


Case of Marriage

Marriage is one of the things that Allah has decreed. The person whom you will marry is known to Allah SWT: He SWT knows who he is, when he was born, where and when he will die, how he will be towards you, and other details. This is one of a pre-arranged setting that Allah SWT has decided before hand.

All of that is known to Allah SWT and He SWT has written it in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Book of Decrees), and it will inevitably come to pass as Allah SWT has decreed.

If Allah SWT has decreed (knew, wrote and willed to happen) that you will marry one person, but you choose someone else, then no matter how long it takes, you will marry that person. But your marriage to someone else is also decreed, because there is nothing that is not decreed by Allah SWT.

... وَلاَ تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلاَّ كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الأَرْضِ وَلاَ فِي السَّمَاء وَلاَ أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَلِكَ وَلا أَكْبَرَ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

Allah says “… And nothing is hidden from your Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom (or small ant) on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that but is (written) in a Clear Record.”

Surah Yunus: 10:61

It may be decreed for a woman to marry so and so the son of so and so, and he comes to propose marriage but she refuses him, and marries someone else, then he (the second man) dies or divorces her, then she accepts the first one. All of that is decreed, and it is decreed for her to marry so and so the son of so and so after initially refusing him and after some experience or trials etc. That is still decreed and written before hand as well

The case of marriage is like of children. No one can tell how many children he or she will have. The number of children is decreed by Allah SWT. He SWT decided how many children we will have and if they will be boys or girls. It is beyond our control. However, Allah SWT has monitored these issues by the natural causes and the forces of the chain of causality that He created and decreed as well.

Similarly, it is beyond our control to have specific child. Thus Allah SWT decided that Prophet Mohammad PBUH will be born to Abdullah and bibi Amina and in the lineage of Prophet Ibrahim AS.


Conclude

Thus we conclude it by saying that Allah SWT gave us free will to exercise as part of the test, and it is our test to choose the right path and not fall astray. However, Allah SWT in His Devine Wisdom already written in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz about the choices we will make as a consequence to His utter and complete Knowledge.

And Allah SWT knows the best.


Discussing Qadar & Hadith of Prophet (s)

• The matter of belief in al-Qadar is an article of Faith and we must know our faith well in order to worship Allah in the right way. In fact al-Qadar was mentioned in the Hadeeth of Gibra’el in which the Prophet mentioned al-Qadar as an article of faith. At the end of this Hadeeth the Prophet said, “Verily! Gibra’el came to teach you your Deen” Saheeh Muslim, the book of faith.

• The Noble Quran is full of verses about al-Qadar and its details, and Allah says, “Do they not think deeply in the Qur'an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it)?” Sorah Muhammed 47:24

• The Scholars among the Salaf as-Saalih wrote extensively on the subject, had it been prohibited to do so, they would have committed a serious disobedience to Allah. Had they also not explained this matter, many people would remain ignorant, and it would have opened the door to innovation in understanding al-Qadar.

• What did the Prophet mean when he said:

It was narrated from Ibn Mas'ood that the Prophet (s) said: "If my companions are mentioned, then keep quiet; if the stars are mentioned, then keep quiet; and if the divine decree is mentioned, then keep quiet." (Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, 2/96. Classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 34).

o This hadeeth indicates that it is not permissible for a person to speak badly of the companions of the Prophet(s), and that he should keep quiet about the disputes that occurred among them, because speaking badly of them or criticizing them implies that one is rejecting what Allah said about them in the Qur'aan, where He praised them by saying:

وَالسَّابِقُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُواْ عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Allah said: "And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allaah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success" al-Tawbah 9:100

o With regard to the second part of the hadeeth, which enjoins refraining from speaking about the stars, what is referred to by that - and Allah knows best - is seeking guidance by the stars concerning matters that are unseen, as the people of the jaahiliyyah used to do by means of astrology. This is forbidden.

With regard to the third part of the hadeeth, the answer is that the Prophet prohibited disputing about but not understanding the matter of al-Qadar. He did not want Muslims to indulge in discussions about al-Qadar without Knowledge and proofs. Also discussions that will lead to disputes in this matter are forbidden.

Al-Qadar is from the world of the unseen. What is known about it from the Quran and the Sunnah is to be followed and the Muslims must submit to it. No one is allowed to give his opinion on this issue. Sufficient is what is revealed to the Prophet. We are permitted to seek Knowledge about al-Qadar, and this is different from asking questions like - Why did Allah guide Ahmed and not Iqbal? Or why rain falls on the southern part of the land and not on the eastern part? Certainly, the Wisdom of Allah in al-Qadar cannot be questioned.

لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ

Allah says: 'He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned'

[al-Anbiya' 21:23]

END OF ARTICLE


References

  1. Qur’an & Sunnah
  2. Lectures of Tariq Abdul Haleem, Egypt
  3. Qadaa wal-Qadar - Dr. Saleh as-Saleh, Saudi Arabia
  4. Mawdudi, India, Pakistan
  5. Ibn Taymiyah, Syria, Egypt
  6. Ibn Qayyim Jawziyyah, Syria, Egypt
  7. Tafsir ibn-Khatir, Syria, Egypt
  8. Q/A on Qadaa wal-Qadar by Saalih al-Munajjid, Saudi Arabia
Last Updated ( Monday, 13 October 2008 00:42 )